Saturday, January 23, 2016

Her Old Man Lived in a Roll of Paper : A Story of Modern Art and Abortion

The doorbell at the front of the mansion didn’t work. I knocked, tightened my wool scarf around my neck, and after a short wait, I knocked again louder. I looked around. Fallen leaves lay in sodden patches on the lawn, their edges lifted up and stirred intermittently by random gusts of wind. Cars and city buses whooshed by, spinning water off their tires onto the street on the other side of the high wrought iron fence. At a 7-Eleven on a corner across the street, some young men were hanging around a pay phone.
Susan opened the door. After we said hello, I followed her across the spacious entryway and behind a worn but grand staircase to a heavily varnished many-panelled oak door with an ornate brass knob and hinges.
We passed through that door into a dimly lit hallway. Several flat white painted doors with number decals pasted on them opened onto the hall.
The chrome doorknob on door #1 turned, the door opened from the inside, and a naked man who looked to be in his early thirties stood framed in the doorway. He stood there for a few moments backlit by the afternoon October light coming in through the dirty bare window behind him.
When we didn’t shriek or titter at the full frontal view of his pale body, he turned around, giving us a good look at his equally pale rear end, went back into his room and closed the door without saying anything. “That’s Bill. He’s the weirdo that owns this place,” Susan said. “He walks around like that sometimes. I think he thinks he’ll turn one of us on.”
She told me that the previous owner had chopped the aged mansion in that declining south Minneapolis neighborhood into fifteen 12 by 12 foot rooms. We reached the door labeled #5. She opened the padlock, and swung the door open. “Bill bought this place for a song.” “Where did he get the money?” “I don’t know. He doesn’t seem to do anything. Now he rents the rooms out to people like me.”
Susan was 22 at the time we met up that afternoon in Minneapolis. The June before she had graduated with a degree in Studio Arts from Moorhead State College, which is a seven-hour drive northwest of the Twin cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul.
I had been an art student in Moorhead too, before I transferred to the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis a few years before she graduated.  Susan and I had gotten to know each other because we both often worked late on our art assignments.
I’m not someone who could afford to or would want to choose my friends by their looks, but just for the record, nobody would call Susan beautiful. Nice looking, they’d say perhaps. She had youth and slenderness going for her. Her face was attractive enough, but slightly marred by light case of acne and of oily skin.  I don’t remember any of her facial features.
Come to think of it, I don’t remember any of her art either. I don’t know, but she might say similar things about me. It might be harder for her to forget my art though, the piece I was working on was a 4 feet x 6 feet photorealist painting of flat snow-dusted Minnesota farmland that stretched out along the interstate highway I 94 that ran through Fargo. 
The only trees in view from the open road were some cottonwoods that grew along the outline of the Buffalo River in the distance and some Russian olives and more cottonwoods that had been planted in straight lines around the farmsteads by the WPA in the 1930s. A blue semi-truck barreled towards the viewer in the left lane.   
The scene on my canvas was framed by the outline of distinctive front window and dashboard mirror of my beat up second hand Saab.  The left rear view mirror showed only a circle of black, exactly what the camera had seen when I took the e photograph that I’d used for the painting.
A sign on the right side of the road in the painting read “Downer Exit 1 Mile.” It was my little joke. I had taken the photo out on the highway from the back seat of the Saab on the chilly April day before my divorce was being finalized. The sign actually read, “Sabin/Downer Exit 1 Mile.” I thought my modification was clever. I was exiting the downer, get it? Nudge, nudge. If I’d only known . . ..
My painting was inspired by a two-story close-up of Close’s face, an early selfie, at the Walker Art Museum. Mine was a lot smaller than the Close painting, but it was the largest thing in the art studio. I stretched the canvas myself, one skill I had been taught at the school, but I needed to teach myself how to plan a painting, how to use an air brush, laying down and removing masking tape and putting down layers of paint, painting and reconsidering and repainting as I worked through the problems that presented themselves. The faculty at the school was strong into teaching students how to express themselves, and weak on teaching anything as prescriptive as technique.
A hip young women artist who was at the college as a visiting professor had been pleased that I was trying photorealism, and she exclaimed that the painting captured exactly what it felt like to drive through the landscape around there. If I ever finished it, she said, she would give it an A. It took me a year. The visiting professor was gone back to New York city by then, but the head of the department gave me the A and closed out my Incomplete when I told him what my professor had said. 
I would see Susan around the art studios in Moorhead during two or three evenings a week. After I made dinner and ate with my two children and cleaned up the dishes, I would leave the kids with a babysitter, drive back to the art building, and work until I couldn’t stay awake any more. Sometimes I’d also see another young student hanging around there too, a more than six feet tall boney blond guy named Sven. I never saw what he was working on. But I was semi-aware that Sven was “into” pushing the limits of conceptual art. That kind of art is usually impossible to see, anyway. In case you have been mercifully spared exposure to this enduring fad in the art world, one prominent idea behind conceptual art is no actual work of art even needs to be created. The art is in the mind of its creator. I didn’t talk with Sven much. He did was as terse as just about all of the rest of the men I met around there. I’m from the East Coast, and I found the local men to be frustratingly inarticulate. I did overhear Sven actually talking, one night in the art department. He was reading to Susan the words from Yoko Ono’s “Snow Piece (1963),” one of the instructions from Grapefruit.
Think that snow is falling. Think that snow is falling everywhere all the time. When you talk with a person, think that snow is falling between you and on the person. Stop conversing when you think the person is covered by snow.”
The phrase “snow job” popped into my mind.
After she graduated, Susan moved to the cities  to take a job as a secretary at a law office in downtown Minneapolis. I had moved there with my two children to escape the small pond of the small college and to try to find like-minded people in the big pond of the big city University of Minnesota.
The afternoon I visited Susan in the rooming house, I hadn’t seen her in a few years. It’s too big a subject to go into here in any detail, but I had changed in the meantime. I had peeled off my cynical artist intellectual atheist personna like a mask. In my miserable time alone trying to raise my kids in poverty and finish my college degree after my divorce, I stopped thinking my husband’s name like a mantra, which I had been doing since I took up with him ten years earlier, as if he could save me.  Gradually, I  had been drawn back to the Catholic faith of my childhood. I said to myself that even if religion was a crutch, there was nothing wrong with accepting help from Almighty God. That meant to my great relief that I didn’t have to figure out by all by myself any more.
Susan looked especially nice the day of my visit to her room. Her long wavy brown hair was held back with a leather clasp, and she wore jeans, suede boots, a loose navy blouse, and a necklace made of colored wooden beads.
“Seeing anyone?” I asked. “Well, sort of. I’m sleeping with a guy who lives here.” “What kind of work does he do?” “He collects welfare.” “How can he collect welfare? Isn’t he able to work?” “I don’t think he wants to work. He’s on General Assistance.” “What does he do since he doesn’t work?” “I don’t know. I guess. He has a motorcycle. He keeps it in his room. Sometimes he takes it out, and we go for a ride.” She showed me a picture of him, a big blonde bearded man wearing a tee shirt and jeans and motorcycle boots sitting on the edge of the mattress and boxspring that was on the floor of her room and grinning for the camera.
At that time, amazingly enough, a healthy young man could get on a form of welfare called General Assistance. That was a loophole that has long since been closed.
As I was listening to her talk, I was fuming inside about how a no-good freeloading bum like him could get a smart attractive creative girl like Susan when he was without any virtues of his own to offer, no education, no ambition, no job, no love, no hope of committment. I wondered what her parents would think of the way their beloved little daughter was living now she’d grown. She had been raised well. How, I wondered, could she could sell her precious self so short?
I don’t remember how we got on the subject, but she told me that she’d had an abortion.
It turns out that some time after I moved away from Moorhead, Susan and Sven had drifted into one of those noncommittal affairs that became so common in those decades . He had made no promises, and she had not expected any.
He had made up his mind that he didn’t want to ever make a commitment to one woman or to have kids. He needed to be free to pursue his Art.  Artists didn’t have to live by the rules that applied to other people. Being an Artist  wasn’t tied up with anything so mundane as needing to get up out of bed every day when it was still dark in winter mornings and scrape the snow from the windshield and start the car so it could warm up by the time he needed to drive to work so he could support a family.
Once they started to sleep together, they experienced together all the sweet transports of love that had traditionally been reserved for the honeymoon, but they scrupulously avoided the 20th century sin of being possessive, and it was important to them that they did not use the name of love for what they were experiencing together. Susan had read enough advice in the women’s magazines that she surreptitiously enjoyed, which warned not to “scare a man away” by mentioning commitment.
Sven, for his part, had practically memorized The Playboy Philosophy, which preached that women could now be enjoyed as independent playmates, without any need for courtship or love or commitment. The intimacy that had traditionally been reserved for marriage could be treated as care-free play. The Pill was supposed to free women from so-called slavery to the demands of their biology, free them to enjoy uncommitted intimacy as if they were men.
Sven was dedicated to his Art more than she was to hers. He took the idea of making art out of one’s life a lot further than most. He first decided to make his life into a work of Art by being intentional in every single action he performed. Walking home in snow from the college to his apartment in Fargo across the Red River of the north, he would examine every footprint he made with his big boots. He pondered every word he uttered, savored every feeling he felt.
Then, he decided, simple awareness was not enough.
Somehow he got a hold of a huge roll of printing press paper and manoevered it into his apartment. He slept on it and he ate on it. He drew on it, and he wrote on it. He did almost everything imaginable in it, although he still made use of the bathroom for taking care of a few basic needs. Every morning, he would roll up the paper with the traces of his life from the day before on one side of the room, and unroll fresh paper onto the middle of the floor on which he would create the art of that new day. In the back of his mind, he hoped that someone would discover his Art and showcase his genius. I have no idea how that could have happened.  Until he was discovered, he would continue his labor of love.
Susan got a job offer in the Twin Cities with the help of a friend of her father’s, she told Sven. She would prefer staying around Moorhead and making art, but she needed to find a way to make a living, since her parents expected her to move out on her own after college. She hoped he would ask her to stay with him, but he didn’t.
When Susan found out she was pregnant, soon after she moved, they both were surprised. She took the Pill regularly, at the same time every day. People back then didn’t realize that a fairly high percentage of pregnancies occur when a woman is using the Pill. From charts I’ve seen directly from Planned Parenthood, 6 out of 100 women get pregnant every year, even when they take it exactly as prescribed. The next year the same odds apply again. Planned Parenthood, of course, is always there to “help” with aborting the babies of the 6% each year.
The Pill was, as the saying goes, a crap shoot. If the dice landed against them, people trying to live the bogus promises of sexual freedom who found themselves about to become parents didn’t realize that they were simply the one of the six out of a hundred with an unplanned pregnancy each year. They would blame themselves. Actually, quite often the man would blame the pregnancy on the woman.
A blessed event was no longer seen as such, but as a trap, a failure, a punishment.
Lots of men secretly or not so secretly believed that a woman who got pregnant was trying to trick him so she could get him to marry her. She was trying to possess him. And for that duplicity, which was often just in his own mind, many men felt they were justified in getting as far away from the entrapping female as possible.
Sven was, Susan told me, not like that. He was very supportive. He “helped” her a lot, she said. For one thing, he helped pay for the abortion.
It was her choice he told her. Nobody should force her to carry a child that wasn’t wanted.  He didn’t want to be a parent. But if she did, that was her choice. If she didn’t, well that would make things easier.
He also “helped” her by coming down from Fargo to take her to Planned Parenthood for the abortion. She was surprised by how much like a cattle call it was when they got into the big waiting room. Everyone was told to arrive at the same time, and then they had to stand in line to pay. The women were called into the abortion offices one at a time in order of when they had paid.
Sven had forgotten his credit card, and so he had to go back to her rooming house to get it while she sat and waited and watched, and he had to go to the back of the line again. She was also surprised that so many of the women were in tears. Down the hall from the waiting room, she could hear one woman wailing in a recovery room.
And wasn’t Sven good because he waited for her in the waiting room and patiently comforted her afterwards?
I was surprised to hear she needed comfort. She had been so matter of fact.
She told me that she never expected what she felt afterwards. Her whole physical being convulsed for days with feelings of intense grief. She told me that even though her pregancy had been only six weeks along, her breasts leaked milk and her hormones were raging and she felt she was craving her child. The way she explained it, I tried to tell her, it seemed to me that even though she thought she “knew” that she did the right thing, her body seemed to know better what she had done, and what she had lost.
Susan had been deeply ashamed--not because of having killed her child in her womb, but  because of her unexpected sorrow. But, she said Sven was very good to her even so. She was betraying her own resolve not to be clingy or dependent, but he took it in stride. Sven stayed with her for three days afterwards, until she was able to get out of bed and take a shower and start to eat again. He kissed her goodbye, gave her a lingering hug, and went back to Fargo, back to his big roll of paper.
Modern romance.  No, not even romance, I thought. God help us all.
We talked about some other things, and I excused myself after a while to go pick up my kids at their after-school program. As we walked back down the hall towards the front door, door #1 opened just a crack, and then closed again, and to my relief I was spared a second sighting of her flasher landlord.
I also consider myself lucky that I didn’t get to meet Susan’s unemployed biker boyfriend.  Dark had descended on the late Fall afternoon. When I got to my car, I used the windshield wipers to push off some of the damp leaves that had fallen on the windshield while I was inside, and I drove off to the grammar school to pick up my kids.
A year later, Susan met a more decent man at the law office, who had a regular job as an accountant. She didn’t go completely traditional by any means. After a few months, she moved in with him, but, then, to my relief, they started planning their wedding. I asked her if she had told him about the abortion. She said he understood and that he respected her choice. Later on my two kids and I attended the wedding at the First Methodist Church. When we went to the reception in the church basement, we ate sheet cake and jordan almonds and drank the Kool-aid punch at a table by ourselves.  
I don’t know what happened to Susan after that.  It’s hard enough to know what had happened to her before that. I pray that God has changed her mind and her heart. May God grant to her and to the men in her life and to all of us, true repentance for the sins of our youth, and may He give us His pardon and His peace.

Wednesday, January 13, 2016

Prince Charming's Mother Was a Real Ogre: Surprises from Charles Perrault, Father of the Fairy Tale

Charles Perrault is called "father of the fairy tale," because of the Mother Goose tales he published in the 1600s, a century before the more-famous Brothers Grimm. On January 12, 2016, Perrault was honored with not just one but three Google doodles in honor of what would have been his three hundred and eighty-eighth birthday. (Of course, since he died at the age of seventy-five, for three hundred and thirteen of those years, he has not been celebrating birthdays any more.)

In response to the Google doodles (which I show at the bottom of this post), many articles popped up about him all over the Internet.  In this post, I want to add a little bit more to the discussion, to go a little deeper into a few things. One thing that struck me personally about Perrault was his deep Catholic faith. He was so Catholic that he has an article to himself in the Catholic Encyclopedia! And another interesting thing is how much his stories are still with us, and how much they have been changed in the retellings since he first wrote them.

Perrault was a intellectual prodigy and very much involved with the court of King Louis XIV in France.  For one example, he was voted a member of Académie française. As an example of just one of his other many accomplishments, Perrault planned the Labyrinthe in Versailles, which featured thirty-nine fountains that depicted stories from Aesop's Fables. (King Louis XVI tore the Labyrinthe down during his own reign because of the prohibitive cost of maintaining it.)
One source said that Perrault decided during his retirement from the court at the age of fifty five to devote more time to his children and to his writing [1].   He tried to revive the genre of epic in his day by writing an epic about a saint, Saint Paulinus of Nola. St. Paulinus, as I found out researching this, was quite a remarkable saint, and he well deserved an epic. But Perrault's Saint-Paulin was not a success.

Perrault published Histoires ou contes du temps passé, avec dez Moralites (Stories of Times Past with Moralities): Les Contes De Ma Mere Ioye (The Stories of My Mother Goose), under the name of his nineteen year old son in 1697. The book soon came to be referred to only by its subtitle. It went on to great success. There seems to have been a fad for telling fairy tales in salons, sort of like the current adult fad for coloring book pages.

After reading a couple of Perrault's stories, I see that they were a lot grittier than the versions we hear today. This made me recall that I learned while in graduate school that the folk tales from which fairy tales are sometimes derived were often bawdy like Chaucer's tales, not to mention bloody, dark, and violent. Even though Perrault's versions were more gritty than the versions we know now, they are less gritty than many folk tales that may have served as his sources.  He intended his stories for children, after all, as you can see by the frontspiece of his book.  And, he ended each of his stories with a rhymed moral.

Frontspiece of Contes De Ma Mere L'Oye

The moral at the end of his version of "Little Red Riding Hood", for example, made it obvious that a 'wolf' may be a man intent on preying on young girls who wander alone in woods, or even on the streets. 
From this story one learns that children, especially young lasses, pretty, courteous and well-bred, do very wrong to listen to strangers, And it is not an unheard thing if the Wolf is thereby provided with his dinner," he wrote. "I say Wolf, for all wolves are not of the same sort; there is one kind with an amenable disposition – neither noisy, nor hateful, nor angry, but tame, obliging and gentle, following the young maids in the streets, even into their homes. Alas! Who does not know that these gentle wolves are of all such creatures the most dangerous!"
Perrault's version of "Sleeping Beauty" is titled "La Belle au bois dormant"  ("The Beauty Sleeping in the Wood").  Perrault's story has a second part that tells what happened after the prince and the princess married. Not exactly on the line of "They lived happily ever after." The mother in law turned out to be an ogre.  No, not metaphorically. A real ogre who craved human flesh and who began to cast her greedy eyes on her succulent young grandchildren and daughter-in-law.

Speaking of gritty, other folk versions of the tale had the prince impregnating a sleeping beauty while she was still asleep. Thank goodness, Perrault did not use that plot twist.

This is an excellent article from the The Telegraph about the permutations of Perrault's stories in more recent years.

The Google doodles. 
Le Maistre Chat, ou le Chat Botté (The Master Cat; or, Puss in Boots)
Cendrillon, ou la petite pantoufle de verre (Cinderella; or, The Little Glass Slipper)
La belle au bois dormant (The Sleeping Beauty in the Wood)
[1] En 1683, à l’âge de cinquante-cinq ans, il se retira des affaires dans sa maison du faubourg Saint-Jacques pour soigner l’éducation de ses enfants et aussi pour mieux s’adonner aux lettres que, depuis vingt ans, il avait à peu près délaissées. -- Les Contes de ma mère l’Oye avant Perrault by Charles Deulin. E. Dentu, 1879.

Saturday, January 02, 2016

Mama! Mira! Caca en la Plaza!

One morning I was intrigued to see that one of my neighbors posted an offer on our Northside San José neighborhood’s yahoo email group to give away a poster of the infamous Quetzalcoatl sculpture that is located at the lower end of César Chavez park.
The infamous sculpture

César Chavez park is a two-acre park in a prime location in San José, and it was the site of the original capital of California from 1849 to 1851. The park has some venerable and dignified neighbors, such as the Fairmont Hotel and the San Jose Museum of Art, which inhabits a sandstone former Post Office building with an expanded wing, across the way from their newer neighbor, the Tech Museum of Innovation. The park is named after Mexican American César Chavez, an activist who did much to improve the lot of farm workers. The statue, which was installed in 1994, is titled "Plumed Serpent." It was supposed to honor Mexican Americans. Just about everyone agrees it does no such thing. Most people describe it as resembling nothing so much as an eight high by twelve foot wide pile of dinosaur droppings.

Here's the posting. Someone took the Quetzalcoatl poster within a few hours.

I bid on this at an auction and won and got it home and realized I just don't have a place to put it. It is done by a local artist (whose name escapes me) so I would like it to stay in the neighborhood. I think it is a colorful, fairly detailed rendition of the statue, with a nice representation of the surrounding area, with a humorous nod to the controversy around the piece.

The humorous nod to the controversy that my neighbor mentioned seems to be the silhouettes of two chihuahuas on top of the sculpture. People actually do pose their little dogs on top of the statue for gag photos, sort of like how people have their photos taken in Pisa so they look like they are holding up the Leaning Tower. It is a shame that a public art project that was planned to stand for the city of San Jose turned out to be such a nasty joke.

One reason that the city used to justify paying $500,000 for the almost universally hated and ridiculed representation of an Aztec idol from the era of human sacrifices was that it was a symbol of Mexican culture, because San José has many Mexican Americans among its long time residents and more recently arrived immigrants. (I never realized until I moved here that some of the Mexican Americans who live around here are descendants of people who lived in this area since before the founding of the United States.) The fact is that vast numbers of Mexicans would be highly likely to have an image of Our Lady of Guadalupe in their homes, and it would be hard to imagine any Mexicans honoring Quetzalcoatl anyway. Especially in the form of a pile of dinosaur droppings.

"Quetzacoatl! Who knows what he meant to the dead Aztecs, and to the older Indians, who knew him before the Aztecs raised their deity to heights of horror and vindictiveness?" D. H. Lawrence, The Plumed Serpent

Aside from the flawed rationale used to justify the sculpture, there is the appalling lack of aesthetics in the final version, which is a far cry from what the city commissioned. The original statue that was approved by the city arts commission from noted L.A. sculptor Robert Graham was to have been a gleaming, three story high, cast bronze image of a winged serpent on a pedestal. Some accounts say that Graham became angry at the city for not giving him another commission he had been seeking and/or because the city rejected his early designs, and in retribution he changed the design to a squat pile of concrete, as an apparent insult.

There are other explanations. One of them is that the artist realized that the bronze would cost too much to make. Still another explanation is that Graham derived his image from similar statues displayed at the National Museum in Mexico.
Quetzal is a brightly plumed tropical bird with brilliant bronze, green and red plumage. Imagine a cross between a parrot and a Las Vegas show girl. [Coatl means serpent.] ... The original design called for a three-story edifice of gleaming cast-bronze - it was discarded as being too expensive. The bronze would have echoed the plumage of a Quetzal, as well as the association Quetzalcoatl had with corn.

Graham's Quetzy is derivative of existing statues displayed at the National Museum in Mexico, described by D.H. Lawrence in 1926 as, ... snakes coiled like excrement, snakes fanged and feathered beyond all dreams of dread." That is the problem. Graham's slavish re-creation of this ancient, snake-focused motif, albeit authentic in origin, is hardly what a city yearning for a nationally recognizable icon needs. The esthetics of the Aztecs are hardly the esthetics of chic and worldly San Joseans.-- From an unmaintained  website called Soft Underbelly of San Jose
Whether either or both explanations are true, Graham contracted with a company to pour the much-revised sculpture from a very small model he gave them using a substance called Quickcrete. The casting was imperfectly done, spaces between the joints are noticeable. The tautness and shine of a snake's skin are not part of the work, instead the concrete seems to sag. The Aztec markings fade to indistinctness at any distance, so to anyone driving by, the serpent looks just like a dump.

One wag said that to this day little Mexican American children can be heard calling out, "Mama! Mira! Caca!" when they see the statue."

One final absurdity is that this foul image of a pagan idol is permanently installed in the same park where for some years manager scenes were forbidden to be displayed during the annual Christmas in the Park event. The ban on temporary manger scenes has been lifted, but the inconsistency of allowing an image of a pagan deity to stand permanently in a public park while a Christian statue would never be allowed still remains.

Tuesday, December 29, 2015

Peacock Memories: Flannery O'Connor's Most Memorable Piece of Writing Might Have Been a Non-fiction Essay

Recently, I read a Deep Down Things blog post titled Murder Most Fowl, which is a punny title for a reflection about the mysterious deaths of a peahen called Mary Grace and peacock called Manley Pointer, which were being kept for tourists to view on Flannery O'Connor's family farm in Georgia. In case you don't already know, Mary Grace and Manley Pointer are the names of two characters from O'Connor's fiction.  That blog post reminded me of a few more O'Connor-peacock-related stories.

O'Connor sent a photo of herself standing next to a self-portrait she'd painted with one of her peacocks to a friend in a letter dated Oct 20, 1955. She wrote, “I am the one on the left; the one on the right is the Muse."

I started reading Flannery O'Connor when I was a 15 year old high school sophomore.  After Miss Marjorie E. Frye, my English teacher in Leicester, Mass., told me that I could write the Great American Novel, I set my mind on being a "famous writer." Miss Frye gave me many books to read that helped me learn the craft by seeing it practiced well, and among those books were two of O'Connor's novels and a collection of her short stories.

Just before I turned 16 I first read the really funny personal essay that eventually came to identify O'Connor as a writer about peacocks in just about everybody's mind. I saw the story when it was first  published as "Living with  a Peacock" in Holiday magazine in September of 1961.
The essay was also later published in the collection of O'Connor's non-fiction writings that was titled Mystery and Manners, under the title “King of Birds."

Come to think of it, "Living with a Peacock" was actually the only piece of creative writing by Flannery O'Connor that I ever really enjoyed. She was a brilliant memoirist. "Living with a Peacock" was like nothing else I've read before or since.

I didn't remotely understand her fiction until much later--after I read her own descriptions of what she was trying to do in Mystery and Manners, and even after I understood her intentions I didn't like her characters or the things they did.  I admired her greatly, and I still do, even though I don't believe that she succeeded in her goal of creating in her readers' minds the grasp of spiritual realities that she sought to induce by portraying the grotesque people and violent happenings that filled her stories. For other reasons that transcended their own author's intentions, her short stories and novels endure as part of the canon of great American fiction.

Eventually, I sought out and read everything else O'Connor ever wrote while I was working on an M.A. with writing emphasis in Minneapolis, after many unexpected relocations in my life, about fifteen years after I first was exposed to O'Connor's writing.

Flannery O'Connor was one of the very rare women writers whose talent was undisputed by the literary establishment.  I avidly read her work and I read about her partly because I wanted to find out how she had pulled it off. Another one of the reasons I returned to reading O'Connor was that I had returned to being a Catholic, so I had yet another thing in common with her. I hoped her example could show me (some way, somehow) how to succeed not only as a woman writer but as a woman writer who is a serious Catholic.

But, as I've already hinted, when I read  "Living with a Peacock" in a Holiday magazine that my mother had lying around the house when I was 15, I thought it was a hoot.

What Got Her Started

In "Living with a Peacock," I learned that in 1932 Mary Flannery O'Connor got her first taste of fame at the age of five after she taught a Bantam hen to walk backwards on her family's farm in Georgia. The news of that backwards-walking-hen spread far and wide by word of mouth until somehow a British Pathé news crew found out. They came all the way to Georgia and filmed Mary Flannery and the hen, and they put the film into a newsreel that was shown round the world.

As O'Connor tells the story, the experience gave her a taste for collecting fowl and a yearning for another chance to capture the world's attention again. If she could only find a three legged chicken or some other grotesquery and get herself some more of that limelight ... 

And Here's the Very Newsreel

But it wasn't until many years later that I was gratified to actually get to see the PATHÉ! news clip  that she mentioned in her opening paragraphs of the Holiday article. You can view it here.

The Anguish of French Crows, Not!

Rereading 'Living with a Peacock" reminds me of one more story. When I went to France in 1997, for the first week I stayed in an ancient stone farmhouse turned guesthouse that was called Le Mas des Rives outside a village called Sauteyrargues, in Languedoc-Roussillon forty miles north of Montpelier.  While I was unpacking in my upstairs room, I heard an odd type of cawing coming through the windows from the shrubbery around the farmyard. It could be a crow, I thought, maybe, but if so, French crows must have far more angst than their American cousins.

When the group I was with was eating together later outside at a picnic table, I saw that what I had first thought was an anguished crow's croak was actually coming from the throat of a peacock dragging its long feathered tail across the lawn.

Finally, I'd gotten to share one part of Flannery's life experience. I had seen and heard a peacock in a farmyard, even though it was a guest house in Languedoc-Roussillon and not a working farm in Georgia.

Saturday, December 26, 2015

Who Descended from the Stars? The Baby God, That's Who!

StStephenFeastDecember26Today, December 26, is the second day of Christmas, Boxing Day, and the feast of St. Stephen the first martyr. Note the rock connecting with his skull. Today the Pope told us to forgive like Stephen. Good advice. In the crowd, holding the stoners' coats, was Saul, the persecutor of Christians, who became St. Paul. Perhaps Saul's conversion was aided by the grace of Stephen's forgiveness. On another note, t'was on the feast of Stephen when good King Wenceslas went out! And the snow was crisp and even. And everyone forgets the rest of the carol. At least I do.

Today I want to tell you about one carol I know many verses from, in Italian even, "Tu scendi dalle stelle." I learned to sing and to love this piece of music that some say is that only Italian Christmas carol, after I took a semester of Italian in preparation for my trip to Italy 16 years ago. After I came back from Italy, I joined the Italian choir at my local church and sang this carol at Christmas with them for a few years.

In our culture, we don't usually refer to Christ this way, but the Italians call Him affectionately "O Bambino, mio divino," "O my divine Baby ."

That reminds me that my grand-nephew Cole Miller's mother told me that when he was very little, Cole called Jesus, the Baby God. Though no one else in his family was a believer, somehow he knew.

Tu scendi dalle stelle o Re del cielo,
    You came down from the stars, O King of Heaven,

e vieni in una grotta al freddo e al gelo, (bis)
     And you came into a cave, in the cold and in the frost, (2x)

O Bambino mio divino, io ti vedo qui a tremar. O Dio beato!
  O my divine Baby, I see you who shiver. O blessed God

Ah! Quanto ti costò l'avermi amato. (bis) 
   Ah! How much it costs you, loving me. (2x)

A te che sei del mondo il Creatore, mancano i panni e il fuoco,
    To you the Creator of the world, Lacking clothes and fire,

O mio Signore. (bis)
     O my Lord. (2x)

Caro eletto pargoletto, quanta questa povertà più mi innamora,

giacchè ti fece amor povero ancora. (bis)

     Dear chosen one, little infant, how much this poverty makes me love you more,
     Since love made you poor now. (2x)

Tu lasci del tuo Padre il divin seno,
   You leave the divine breast of your Father,

per venire a tremar su questo fieno;
     To come to shiver on this hay.

Caro eletto del mio petto, dove amor ti trasportò!
O Gesù mio, perchè tanto patir, per amor mio...

  Dear chosen one of my heart, where love carried you!
     O my Jesus, why suffer so much, for love of me.

Ma se fu tuo volere il tuo patire
     But if it was your will to suffer

perché vuoi pianger poi, perché vagire?
     Because you wanted to weep, then why wail?

Sposo mio, amato Dio,
     My husband, beloved God,

mio Gesù, t’intendo, sì: Ah, mio Signore!
     My Jesus, I understand you, yes: Ah, my Lord!

Tu piangi non per duol, ma per amore.
     You weep not for grief, but for love.

This is a charming version of the carol, which is sung by children. They sing about half the verses.  Lots of other versions are floating around by others, but they only have the first two or three verses.

I hope this touches your heart the way it touches mine.

Wednesday, December 23, 2015

O Come Emmanuel, O Antiphon for Dec. 23

On Dec. 23, the last of the Great O antiphons of Advent begins by addressing our Savior with the Messianic name, Emmanuel, which means God with us. The antiphon then echoes His title as king (from O Rex Gentium), adds the title of lawgiver, repeats that He is the hoped for One (longed for) and Savior of the nations. It ends with a petition, "come and save us.”
O Emmanuel, Rex et legifer noster, exspectatio gentium, et Salvator earum: veni ad salvandum nos, Domine, Deus noster. 
O Emmanuel, our king and lawgiver, longing of the nations and Savior thereof: Come and save us, O Lord our God.

Related Hymn Verses

Here are the corresponding modified hymn verses from "Veni, Veni, Emmanuel" and "O Come, O Come Emmanuel." The English verse uses "King of the nations."
Veni, veni, Emmanuel,
Captivum solvet Israel
Qui gemit in exsilio
Privatus Dei Fillio

O come, o come, Emmanuel,
And ransom captive Israel,
That mourns in lonely exile here,
Until the Son of God appears.

Scriptural Origins

Isaiah 7:14 Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign. Behold, a young woman[ shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Imman′u-el.

Matthew 1:20b-23:
"[T]hat which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit; she will bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins.” All this took place to fulfil what the Lord had spoken by the prophet:
“Behold, a virgin shall conceive and bear a son,
and his name shall be called Emman′u-el” (which means, God with us).

Dom Gueranger's Commentary about O Emmanuel:

O Emmanuel ! King of peace! Thou enterest today the city of Thy predilection, the city in which Thou hast placed Thy temple—Jerusalem. A few years hence the same city will give Thee Thy cross and Thy sepulchre: nay, the day will come on which Thou wilt set up Thy judgement-seat within sight of her walls. But to-day Thou enterest the city of David and Solomon unnoticed and unknown. It lies on Thy road to Bethlehem. Thy blessed Mother and Joseph her spouse would not lose the opportunity of visiting the temple, there to offer to the Lord. their prayers and adoration. They enter; and then, for the first time, is accomplished the prophecy of Aggeus, that great shall be the glory of this last house more than of the first ; 1 for this second temple has now standing within it an ark of the Covenant more precious than was that which Moses built; and within this ark, which is Mary, is contained the God whose presence makes her the holiest of sanctuaries. The Lawgiver Himself is in this blessed ark, and not merely, as in that of old, the tablet of stone on which the Law was graven. The visit paid, our living ark descends the steps of the temple, and sets out once more for Bethlehem, where other prophecies are to be fulfilled. We adore Thee, O Emmanuel ! in this Thy journey, and we reverence the fidelity wherewith Thou fulfillest all that the prophets have written of Thee; for Thou wouldst give to Thy people the certainty of Thy being the Messias, by showing them that all the marks, whereby He was to be known, are to be found in Thee. And now, the hour is near; all is ready for Thy birth; come then, and save us; come, that Thou mayst not only be called our Emmanuel, but our Jesus, that is, He that saves us.


Here is a link from New Liturgical Movement that includes a link to a sound file of the chant.

See "History and Mystery: The O Antiphons in a Favorite Hymn" for my post on the relationship between the O antiphons,"Veni, Veni, Emmanuel" and "O Come, O Come Emmanuel."

Tuesday, December 22, 2015

O Rex Gentium, O Antiphon for Dec. 22

Christ in Majesty, Fra Angelico
The O antiphon for Dec. 22nd begins by addressing our Savior with the Messianic name, O Rex Gentium. The antiphon then describes what this title symbolizes, and it ends with a petition, "come and ....”
O Rex Gentium, et desideratus earum, lapisque angularis, qui facis utraque unum:
veni, et salva hominem quem de limo formasti..

O King of the gentiles and their desired One, the cornerstone that makes both one: come, and deliver man, whom you formed out of the dust of the earth.

The word Gentium comes from gens, which means tribe, clan; nation, people; Gentiles. The Jews would have understood the word as referring to the Gentiles.

Calling on Christ as Rex Gentium et desideratus earum (King and desired one of all the nations) means that even those who have never heard of true God or His promised Messiah, and even those who do not know they need salvation, long for Him.

Related Hymn Verses

Here are the corresponding modified hymn verses from "Veni, Veni, Emmanuel" and "O Come, O Come Emmanuel." The English verse uses "King of the nations."

Veni, veni, Rex gentium, Veni Redemptor omnium: Ut salvas tuos famulos Peccati sibi conscios.

Come, O come, King of the nations, come, Redeemer of all: that Thou mayst save Thy family from the guilt of their sins.

Scriptural Origins

King of the Nations
Jeremiah 10:7:7 Who would not fear thee, O King of the nations? For this is thy due; for among all the wise ones of the nations and in all their kingdoms there is none like thee.Desired of all nations
Haggai 2:4-8:
"My Spirit abides among you; fear not. For thus says the Lord of hosts: Once again in a little while, I will shake the heavens and the earth and the sea and the dry land; and I will shake all the nations — and the desired of all nations shall come; and I will fill this house with splendour, says the Lord of hosts."

Psalm 118:22: "The stone which the builders rejected has become the head of the corner."

Isaiah 28:16a: "Behold, I am laying in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tested stone, a precious cornerstone, of a sure foundation."

Matthew 21:42, Mark 12:10, and Luke 20:17: "Jesus said to them, 'Have you never read in the scriptures: ‘The very stone which the builders rejected has become the head of the corner; this was the Lord’s doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes’?"

Acts 4:8-12:
Then Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, said to them, “Rulers of the people and elders, if we are being examined today concerning a good deed done to a cripple, by what means this man has been healed, 10 be it known to you all, and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead, by him this man is standing before you well. 11 This is the stone which was rejected by you builders, but which has become the head of the corner. 12 And there is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved.”

I Peter 2:7-8:
To you therefore who believe, he is precious, but for those who do not believe,
“The very stone which the builders rejected has become the head of the corner,”
and “A stone that will make men stumble, a rock that will make them fall”; for they stumble because they disobey the word, as they were destined to do.

Cornerstone Who Joins the Gentiles with Israel
Ephesians 2:14-16, 19-22:
11 Therefore remember that at one time you Gentiles in the flesh, called the uncircumcision by what is called the circumcision, which is made in the flesh by hands— 12 remember that you were at that time separated from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 13 But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off have been brought near in the blood of Christ. 14 For he is our peace, who has made us both one, and has broken down the dividing wall of hostility, 15 by abolishing in his flesh the law of commandments and ordinances, that he might create in himself one new man in place of the two, so making peace, 16 and might reconcile us both to God in one body through the cross, thereby bringing the hostility to an end.  19 So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints and members of the household of God, 20 built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone, 21 in whom the whole structure is joined together and grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 22 in whom you also are built into it for a dwelling place of God in the Spirit.

Dom Gueranger's Commentary about Rex Gentium

O King of nations! Thou art approaching still nigher to Bethlehem, where Thou art to be born. The journey is almost over, and Thy august Mother, consoled and strengthened by the dear weight she bears, holds an unceasing converse with Thee on the way. She adores Thy divine Majesty; she gives thanks to Thy mercy; she rejoices that she has been chosen for the sublime ministry of being Mother to God. She longs for that happy moment when her eyes shall look upon Thee, and yet she fears it. For, how will she be able to render Thee those services which are due to Thy infinite greatness, she that thinks herself the last of creatures ? How will she dare to raise Thee up in her arms, and press Thee to her heart, and feed Thee at her breasts? When she reflects that the hour is now near at hand, in which, being born of her, Thou wilt require all her care and tenderness, her heart sinks within her; for, what human heart could bear the intense vehemence of these two affections—the love of such a Mother for her Babe, and the love of such a creature for her God? But Thou supportest her, O Thou the Desired of nations! for Thou, too, longest for that happy birth, which is to give to the earth its Saviour, and to men that corner-stone, which will unite them all into one family. Dearest King! be Thou blessed for all these wonders of Thy power and goodness ! Come speedily, we beseech Thee, come and save us, for we are dear to Thee, as creatures that have been formed by Thy divine hands. Yea, come, for Thy creation has grown degenerate; it is lost; death has taken possession of it: take Thou it again into Thy almighty hands, and give it a new creation; save it; for Thou hast not ceased to take pleasure in and love Thine own work.

From Julian of Norwich

O Rex Gentium
O King of our desire whom we despise,
King of the nations never on the throne,
Unfound foundation, cast-off cornerstone,
Rejected joiner, making many one,
You have no form or beauty for our eyes,
A King who comes to give away his crown,
A King within our rags of flesh and bone.
We pierce the flesh that pierces our disguise,
For we ourselves are found in you alone.
Come to us now and find in us your throne,
O King within the child within the clay,
O hidden King who shapes us in the play
Of all creation. Shape us for the day
Your coming Kingdom comes into its own.


Here is a link from New Liturgical Movement that includes a link to a sound file of the chant.

See "History and Mystery: The O Antiphons in a Favorite Hymn" for my post on the relationship between the O antiphons,"Veni, Veni, Emmanuel" and "O Come, O Come Emmanuel."

Monday, December 21, 2015

O Oriens, O Antiphon for Dec. 21 and Corresponding Hymn Verses from O Come Emmanuel/ Veni Emmanuel

It is especially fitting that we pray this antiphon today, on the Winter Solstice. Today is the shortest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere. This title of Christ, Oriens, means daybreak, dawn, sunrise, the East, the beginning. The O antiphon for Dec. 21th begins by addressing our Savior as O Oriens, O Dayspring or Dawn rising from the East. The antiphon then describes what the Oriens symbolizes, and it ends with a petition, "come and ....”

O Oriens, splendor lucis æternæ, et sol justitiæ veni et illumina sedentes in tenebris, et umbra mortis.

O Orient! splendour of eternal light, and Sun of justice! come and enlighten them that sit in darkness, and in the shadow of death.

Here are the corresponding modified hymn verses from "Veni, Veni, Emmanuel" and "O Come, O Come Emmanuel."

Veni, veni o oriens!
Solare nos adveniens,
Noctis depelle nebulas,
Dirasque noctis tenebras.
R: Gaude, gaude, Emmanuel nascetur pro te, Israel.

O come, Thou Dayspring, from on high,
And cheer us by Thy drawing nigh;
Disperse the gloomy clouds of night,
And death's dark shadows put to flight.
Rejoice ! Rejoice ! Emmanuel
Shall come to thee, O Israel.

Oriens when translated from the Latin of today's antiphon is understood as meaning Radiant Dawn, Rising Sun, or Dayspring from on High. "All beautifully express the idea of light shattering the darkness of night, of sin and death, of sickness and despair, with its brightness bringing healing and warmth to cold hearts. Jesus is indeed the true light, the radiance of his Father's splendor. The church prays this petition daily in the Benedictus, joining in the words of Zechariah: "He, the Dayspring, shall visit us in his mercy to shine on those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death"(Luke 1:78-79).[1]

This title of the Messiah is based on many additional Scripture texts.

Isaiah 9:1: "The people who walked in darkness have seen a great light. Upon those who dwelt in the land of gloom a light has shone".

Malachi 4:2: "For you who fear my name, there will arise the sun of justice with its healing rays."

John 3:16-21: "For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life. For God sent the Son into the world, not to condemn the world, but that the world might be saved through him. He who believes in him is not condemned; he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only Son of God. And this is the judgment, that the light has come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil. For every one who does evil hates the light, and does not come to the light, lest his deeds should be exposed. But he who does what is true comes to the light, that it may be clearly seen that his deeds have been wrought in God."

2 Peter 1:19: "Keep your attention closely fixed on it, as you would on a lamp shining in a dark place, until the first streaks of dawn appe

Here is Dom Gueranger’s commentary about this O antiphon for December 21.

"0 Jesus, divine Sun! Thou art coming to snatch us from eternal night blessed for ever be Thy infinite goodness! But Thou puttest our faith to the test, before showing Thyself in all Thy brightness. Thou hidest Thy rays, until the time decreed by Thy heavenly Father comes, in which all Thy beauty will break upon the world. Thou art traversing Judea ; Thou art near Jerusalem; the journey of Mary and Joseph is nigh its term. Crowds of men pass or meet Thee on the road, each one hurrying to his native town, there to be enrolled, as the edict commands. Not one of all these suspects that Thou, O divine Orient ! art so near him. They see Thy Mother Mary, and they see nothing in her above the rest of women; or if they are impressed by the majesty and incomparable modesty of this august Queen, it is but a vague feeling of surprise at there being such dignity in one so poor as she is; and they soon forget her again. If the Mother is thus an object of indifference to them, it is not to be expected that they will give even so much as a thought to her Child, that is not yet born. And yet this Child is Thyself, O ,Sun of justice! Oh! increase our faith, but increase, too, our love. If these men loved Thee, 0 Redeemer of mankind, Thou wouldst give them the grace to feel Thy presence. Their eyes, indeed, would not yet see Thee, but their hearts, at least, would burn within them, they would long for Thy coming, and would hasten it by their prayers and, sighs. Dearest Jesus! who thus traversest the world Thou hast created, and who forcest not the homage of Thy creatures, we wish to keep near Thee during the rest of this Thy journey: we kiss the footsteps of her that carries Thee in her womb; we will not leave Thee, until we arrive together with Thee at Bethlehem, that house of bread, where, at last, our eyes will see Thee, O splendour of eternal light, our Lord and our God!'

The following is a prose translation of a section of some remarkable Advent lyrics that corresponds to today’s O Antiphon; it was written in the 8th century by Cynewulf, an Old-English vernacular poet, who I never heard of before.

Lo! Thou Splendor of the dayspring, fairest of angels sent to men upon earth, Thou Radiance of the Sun of righteousness, bright beyond the stars, Thou of Thy very self dost illumine all the tides of time! Even as Thou, God begotten of God, Son of the true Father, didst ever dwell without beginning in the glory of heaven, so Thine own handiwork in its present need imploreth Thee with confidence that Thou send us the bright sun, and come in Thy very person to enlighten those who have long been covered with murky cloud, and sitting here in darkness and eternal night, shrouded in sins, have been forced to endure the shadow of death. Now in the fulness of hope we believe in the salvation brought to men through the Word of God, who was in the beginning co-eternal with God the Father almighty, and afterward became flesh without blemish, being born of the virgin as a help for the afflicted. God appeared among us without sin; the mighty Son of God and the Son of Man dwelt together in harmony among mankind. Wherefore it is right that we should ever give thanks by our deeds unto the Lord of victory, for that He was willing to send Himself unto us.[2]

And in our own times, Fr. Z. wrote this reflection in his post on O Oriens.

We are all desperately in need of a Savior, a Redeemer who is capable of ransoming from the darkness of our sins and from the blinding and numbing wound of ignorance from which we all suffer. In their terrible Fall, our First Parents inflicted grave wounds in the souls of every person who would live after them, except of course - by an act of singular grace - the Mother of God. Our wills are damaged. Our intellect is clouded. In Christ we have the Truth, the sure foundation of what is lasting. All else, apart from Him fails and fades into dark obscurity. He brings clarity and light back to our souls when we are baptized or when we return to Him through the sacrament of penance.

At Holy Mass of the ancient Church, Christians would face "East", at least symbolically, so that they could greet the Coming of the Savior, both in the consecration of the bread and wine and in the expectation of the glorious return of the King of Glory. They turned to the rising sun who is Justice Itself, whose light will lay bare the truth of our every word, thought and deed in the Final Day.

This is the Solstice day, for the Northern Hemisphere the day which provides us with the least daylight of the year. From this point onward in the globe's majestic arc about the sun, we of the north, benefit from increasing warmth and illumination. It is as if God in His Wisdom, provided within the framework of the cosmos object lessons by which we might come to grasp something of His good plan for our salvation.

Here is a link from New Liturgical Movement that includes a link to a sound file of the chant.

See "History and Mystery: The O Antiphons in a Favorite Hymn" for my post on the relationship between the O antiphons,"Veni, Veni, Emmanuel" and "O Come, O Come Emmanuel."